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Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
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jvkohl
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Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-03-2009 10:05 PM

Abstract: Pheromones have been shown to induce sexually dimorphic responses in LH secretion. Here we asked whether the sexually dimorphic population of kisspeptin neurons in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle(RP3V) could relay sexually dimorphic information from the olfactory systems tothe GnRH system. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of aromatase mutation(ArKO) and thus the role of estradiol on RP3V kisspeptin neuronal numbers and on the response of these kisspeptin neurons to same- versus opposite-sex urinary pheromones. Exposure to male but not female urinary odors induced Fos protein in kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V of female wildtype (WT) mice, suggesting that these kisspeptin neurons may be part of the neural circuitry that relays information from the olfactory brain to the GnRH system in a sexually dimorphic manner. Male pheromones induced Fos in kisspeptin neurons in ArKO females,albeit significantly less compared to WT females. The sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neuronal number was lost in ArKO mice, i.e. the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the RP3V of ArKO females was as low as in male mice, whereas male ArKO mice had somewhat increased numbers of kisspeptin neurons. These results suggest that the sex difference in kisspeptin neuronal number in WT mice reflects an organizational action of estradiol in females. By contrast, the ability of male urinary pheromones to activate kisspeptin neurons in WT females may not depend on the organizational action of estradiol since ArKO females still showed some Fos/kisspeptin co-activation.

Effects of aromatase mutation (ArKO) on the sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neuronal numbers and their activation by same versus opposite sex urinary pheromones
InPress, Uncorrected Proof
Available online 27 November 2009

Julie Bakker, Sylvie Pierman, David González-Martínez
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The first line of the abstract (above) is: "Pheromones have been shownto induce sexually dimorphic responses in LH secretion." my emphasis added. This article, when published, will help to further establish the credibility of the model I've been presenting since the early 1990's.

The title of my first presentation to a scientific congress was Luteinizing hormone: (LH) the link between sex and the sense of smell? The question mark in my title was suggested by a reviewer because -- at that time -- no one could be sure that LH was the link. It is!

Julie Bakker's group has helped to detail a sexually dimorphic pathway from pheromones to hormones (and thus to behavior) in mammals, which we can be relatively sure includes humans. I met Julie at a conference in 1995. At the last two scientific conferences I attended, the presentations on kisspeptin assured me it would be part of the big picture. Even though the abstract may not make sense to most people, you can expect some journalistic liberties to betaken in order to help more people understand after the article is published.

Meanwhile, as some of you already know, androstenol alters LH in women. That's one reason why androstenol is in Scent of Eros products.

James V. Kohl
http://www.pheromones.com
http://www.scentoferos.com
(This post was last modified: 12-05-2009 2:52 PM by jvkohl.)
12-03-2009 10:05 PM
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Gone with the Wind
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-03-2009 11:41 PM

Very interesting that some of these pathways are beginning to be mapped out. I think this is going to be an area of great complexity. We not only see sexual variation but also considerable variation in individuals of the same sex.

Thanks for sharing this.

Gone with the Wind

<p align="center">Gate, gate, paragate, parasamgate. Bodhi svaha!</p>
12-03-2009 11:41 PM
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jvkohl
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-03-2009 11:53 PM

What I see is the similarity among men and women, and across species. The sexual variation is not great. Most males prefer females, most females prefer males. While I agree that there will always be outliers, it seems best to study the similarities and find out why they exist (e.g., because of sex differences in pheromones). Then look at the variations and see if the same model used for the similarities seems to apply to the variations (e.g., differences in the way the pheromones are processed). The variability appears to be in the neuronal systems that feedback on the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system--as does kisspeptin in this case. Pheromones directly effect GnRH, which explains why their effects are rather predictable--and even more predictable when you include kisspeptin, as you will perhaps see when the article becomes available.

JVK

(12-03-2009 11:41 PM)Gone with the Wind Wrote:  Very interesting that some of these pathways are beginning to be mapped out. I think this is going to be an area of great complexity. We not only see sexual variation but also considerable variation in individuals of the same sex.

Thanks for sharing this.
12-03-2009 11:53 PM
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Diane999
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-04-2009 3:03 AM

This is terrific and I hope you will link the full article when it is published.

Sexual dimophisms seem to be fairly common when it comes to neuro-steroid pheromones, like Androstenol, Androsterone, TH-DOC, and others.

Not only the GnRH pathways are effected in this dimorphic manner. The vasodilation and anti-anxiety properties of some androgen pheromones also effect males more than females. Alpha Androstenol has these properties as do Androsterone and etiocholanolone (5β-Androstan-3α-ol-17-one).

I am very happy that the research over the past decade with other mammals is now being tested out and confirmed in humans.

Diane
12-04-2009 3:03 AM
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jvkohl
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-05-2009 3:06 PM

Sexual dimorphism in the production and processing of pheromones is essential to exposure-related sex differences in behavior. In presentations and publications I continue to make the comparison to visual input. Men and women see the same thing; the signal is processed by a sensory system that is not sexually dimorphic. Therefore, the signal cannot be directly linked to a sexually dimorphic hormone response, and it cannot be directly linked to any behavior, let alone a behavior that is different in men and women (e.g., a sexually dimorphic behavior). Still, most people think that visual appeal is the most important thing about a potential partner. Perhaps that's the reason for the 50% divorce rate reported in the US. At some point 50% of married people probably begin to wonder: What was I thinking? Perhaps they should also think about buying some pheromones.

James V. Kohl
http://www.pheromones.com

(12-04-2009 3:03 AM)Diane999 Wrote:  Sexual dimophisms seem to be fairly common when it comes to neuro-steroid pheromones, like Androstenol, Androsterone, TH-DOC, and others.

Not only the GnRH pathways are effected in this dimorphic manner. The vasodilation and anti-anxiety properties of some androgen pheromones also effect males more than females. Alpha Androstenol has these properties as do Androsterone and etiocholanolone (5β-Androstan-3α-ol-17-one).

I am very happy that the research over the past decade with other mammals is now being tested out and confirmed in humans.

Diane
12-05-2009 3:06 PM
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Diane999
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Post: #6
RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-05-2009 3:18 PM

Agreed.
12-05-2009 3:18 PM
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Niatalya
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-05-2009 10:14 PM

12-05-2009 10:14 PM
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jvkohl
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-05-2009 11:39 PM

If you look further into the hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse you will find that increased frequency elicits more LH than FSH; and that this increases women's fertility. One could readily speculate that exposure to masculine pheromones would alter a woman's GnRH pulse frequency, which is how menstrual synchrony occurs (when pheromones from women either advance or retard the cycle of other women). What I've done with my model is to show what can be expected to occur with pheromone exposure either to the same or other sex.

If I only discussed sexual attraction, I could be a marketer.

The connection to testosterone in the first of your links is interesting to me because of Astrid Jutte's work with copulins and a testosterone increase, but also because of a study that showed vitamin D increased testosterone in hypogonadal rats. Sunlight increases vitamin D, so you have another probable influence on LH and testosterone in mammals that may include humans.

James V. Kohl
http://www.pheromones.com


(12-05-2009 10:14 PM)Niatalya Wrote:  More on L.H.
http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/health/...0light.htm
http://www.scienceblog.com/cms/node/6551
12-05-2009 11:39 PM
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Tisha
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-16-2009 5:41 AM

Ok I need to ask a stupid question and please do not tell me to look it up LOL My brother always does that to me.

Whats kisspeptin ?

Quote:Still, most people think that visual appeal is the most important thing about a potential partner. Perhaps that's the reason for the 50% divorce rate reported in the US. At some point 50% of married people probably begin to wonder: What was I thinking? Perhaps they should also think about buying some pheromones.

I agree with this to. I think people use all the wrong senses when choosing a partner. Visual appeal is great but just superficial. I wouldnt say buy pheromones to fix a relationship though. You cant go through life using them every day. Perhaps your studies will change the way people think before they take that plunge. We probably wont see it in our lifetime but certainly your name will be mentioned well after your gone.

Tisha
12-16-2009 5:41 AM
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Xiphoid
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RE: Luteinizing hormone: the link between sex and the sense of smell (18 years later)
12-16-2009 11:48 AM

(12-16-2009 5:41 AM)Tisha Wrote:  Ok I need to ask a stupid question and please do not tell me to look it up LOL My brother always does that to me.

Whats kisspeptin ?
That's not a stupid question Smile
Kisspeptin is a relatively new discovery. It's a sex hormone, found in both men & women. It's involved in initiating puberty (mainly in females)& induces increases in LH & FSH. In the UK they have begun using it to kick-start sex hormone production & ovulation as part of treatment for women with low fertility.
12-16-2009 11:48 AM
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